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    中國傳統敘事與批評的當代意義

    時間:2016/9/1 11:17:54 點擊:


        美劇、英劇如今風靡全球。《老友記》《唐頓莊園》《實習醫生格蕾》《神探夏洛克》等對不少中國普通百姓而言也不陌生。西方的年輕人看《生活大爆炸》,中國的青少年追《愛情公寓》。這些電視系列劇具有明顯的“綴段性敘事”特點,即分集播出的故事本身不連貫,全劇由固定的幾個主要人物貫穿,每一集擁有獨立、完整的情節,從其中任何一集開始觀看都不存在障礙。“綴段性敘事”方式在現代影視傳媒領域廣受青睞,也是美劇、英劇享譽世界的一個重要原因。


         “綴段性敘事”是中國傳統文化經典的敘事模式,在中國古代文學作品中俯拾即是。其特點用魯迅先生評價《儒林外史》的話可一言概之:“惟全書無主干,僅驅使各種人物,行列而來,事與其來俱起,亦與其去俱訖,雖云長篇,頗同短制;但如集諸碎錦,合為帖子,雖非巨幅,而時見珍異,因亦娛心,使人刮目矣。”胡適也曾言:“《儒林外史》沒有布局,全是一段一段的短篇小品連綴起來的;拆開來,每段自成一篇;斗攏來,可長至無窮。這個體裁最容易學,又最方便。”


        然而,在文學批評史上,“綴段性敘事”曾被指有“致命弱點”。不少學者以西方小說的結構標準,借用胡適和魯迅等人對《儒林外史》結構布局上的論述,來論證明清長篇章回小說缺乏“結構”意識,認為這種結構上的缺陷,就在于敘事作品的“綴段性”。殊不知,和西方敘事傳統不同,中國的敘事結構自有其特點。西方敘事強調一以貫之的整體性,如亞里士多德強調敘事的“頭、身、尾”相統一,體現出結構的時間線性。這一敘事觀一直影響到其后的西方戲劇、小說創作。但中國敘事傳統,自先秦的史傳文學始,重心就在于以人物為中心搭建的空間結構,并且外在的結構形式往往和內在的精神內涵緊密相聯,《史記》即為其中佳例。


        到了現代影視大行其道的時代,魯迅、胡適對《儒林外史》敘事方式的評點,恰成了對當今電視系列劇敘事優點的闡述。巧合耶?必然耶?2015年11月,在昆明舉行的第五屆國際敘事學會議上,有美國學者以流行的西方電視電影作品,論述了系列敘事的六要素。中國學者傅修延在現場進行了回應和交流:西方學者關注到的當代系列敘事的特征和要素,早在中國明清長篇敘事作品中就有所體現,《西游記》就是一個例子。西方系列劇和中國傳統敘事不謀而合的“巧合”,勾勒出的是中國傳統敘事在經歷“西學東漸”遭遇“迷茫”后,又在當代與世界的接軌,向人們展示了中國傳統敘事蓬勃的生命力。這恰恰反映出一種“必然”:在全球化、現代和后現代的背景下,隨著對中國傳統優秀文化進一步認識、整理和挖掘,它將迸發出更加燦爛的光芒。



        事實上,中國傳統敘事原本即有著不同于西方敘事的獨特魅力和審美特征:從《左傳》到《史記》,從六朝志怪到唐傳奇,從宋元話本到明清小說,沒有任何一種西方文論能夠直接拿來套用在中國敘事作品上。中國傳統文學批評更是如此:從散見于諸子百家論說中的文論思想到各種作品的序跋,從《文賦》到《文心雕龍》,從劉知幾到金圣嘆、張竹坡和李卓吾,中國傳統文學批評看似體系性不強,實則形散神聚,在貌似隨意、自由的評點中有著獨特的審美情趣,凸顯了評論者的主體意識和情感,更著重于閱讀的同感與共鳴。明清評點派對具體作品的點評和各種批注與其說是對其他閱讀者的一種指導,莫如說更像是評點家在閱讀上的一種個人體驗和交流期待,這和時下流行的彈幕與微信點贊等網絡評點在形式上不無相通,可謂是中國傳統批評與當代的又一接軌。中國傳統批評借助新媒介的技術革新,自有其新生命力的表現形式,關鍵更在于內涵。


        但現狀并不樂觀。誠如單小曦在《評點批評的當代“回歸”與反思》一文中所言,“當代評點批評所取得的成就是針對少數優秀評點而言的。在整體上,目前當代評點批評還存在著諸多缺陷和不足”,其中,網絡評點現狀尤為如此。網絡評點是最能反映時代技術革新的產物,卻又是問題最多的一種批評現象。隨著全球媒介技術的發展,新媒介下的文學生產方式、傳播方式、閱讀方式和批評方式變得越來越多元化、迅疾化和便利化。麥克·盧漢在《理解媒介》中說:“熱媒介要求的參與度低;冷媒介要求的參與度高,要求接受者完成的信息多。”按照這個理解,現在的時代正屬于“冷媒”時代。這是一個鼓勵互動和參與的時代,是主體閱讀自由發聲的時代,各種新媒介平臺的搭建或設置,甚至可以使讀者和讀者之間、讀者和作者之間直接進行交流,從某種角度來說,人人都可以參與創作,人人都有可能成為評論家。可以在作品留言區留言,可以在論壇發帖跟帖,可以在微博暢所欲言,可以開啟彈幕想說就說,可以在微信中盡情點贊評論……然而,多元化和便捷化的同時,也使占主體的大眾評點趨向于快餐化。因此,就文學作品而言,網絡上的大眾評點未必真正發揮了批評的功能。很多時候,具體評點內容的簡單化甚至口水化、粗俗化,似乎只能反映出被評點對象的大眾受歡迎程度與否。如今,越來越多的分析和評價依賴所謂的大數據,但文學閱讀畢竟和其他商品的消費不同。數據不是萬能的,文學閱讀不應該完全由商業利潤來做主,文學批評也應該發揮應有的社會作用,在經典的流傳和推送上奉獻自己的力量。


        一部優秀的文學作品,如果僅僅依據網絡上的閱讀興趣調查決定是否上架,或許經典不復經典。技術的革新使傳統的批評模式煥發出了新的生命力,也使專屬于文學批評家的工作成了大眾娛樂的共有方式。在這種看似更自由的批評氛圍下,專職文學評論家的工作尤顯重要。新媒介使傳統的評點不再局限于紙上的個體閱讀感悟,現代技術促進了這種個體閱讀感悟的交流和共鳴。一句精湛的文學點評,一段出彩的文學論述,一篇上乘的文學評論文章,在幾秒鐘之內即有可能借助新媒介的力量廣為傳播,批評的力量和影響在此,文學評論家的意義和重要性也在此。



        趙毅衡在《廣義符號學》中提出了“二次敘述化”的概念,以及與之密切相關的“解釋社群”。在一定程度上,文學評論家所從事的工作就是對作品進行“二次敘述”,以他們的文化和認知能力解讀文本的意義。他們形成了一個特殊的“解釋社群”,對大眾認識和接受文學作品起到重要的指引作用。更重要的是,“群體性的重復二次敘述,即評論、批評、爭辯、贊美,其足夠數量的積累,能把某一部作品推上意義無限豐富的‘經典’地位”。而這一點,對于弘揚和發掘中國優秀傳統敘事和文化具有重要意義。文學批評家對傳統批評的學習,不應該只局限于自娛自樂式的個體閱讀感悟,更應該有自覺的社會公共意識,對經典進行積極的推介。


        首先,要向中國傳統批評家學習,對文本有真正細致的閱讀體驗和思考。中國有明清評點,西方有新批評,二者共同的優點是對文本的細心研讀。個體感悟式,并非草率而隨意的評點,金圣嘆等人的評點,若從學術角度對之進行整理和提煉,本身即是極好的中國敘事理論。評論要做到真正充實和飽滿,不是為評論而評論;也不做“標題黨”,甚至脫離文本大談特談,只為吸引眼球和點擊率。潛心鉆研,細細品讀,慢慢積累,是前人傳承下來的中國文學批評精神,也是快節奏的現代社會生活下,安撫浮躁之心的一劑良藥。


        其次,文學批評應該有獨立性、自覺性和有效性。在商業化占主導的今天,文學批評更應該發揮自己的獨立性特征,以優秀作品為基石,大力弘揚優秀文化傳統。真正的評論要實現批評家個性閱讀與引領時代使命感的相融。今年正值莎士比亞和湯顯祖逝世400周年,在經典的制造和產生中,作品本身的價值與出版業的發展和推動,以及評論家們的討論、爭辯與肯定密切相關。如果說,理想的作品期待理想的讀者,那么理想的讀者所形成的“解釋社群”應該由理想的評論家來促成和指引。


        再次,應該對中國傳統敘事有更深入的了解和新視角的探索。這個過程并不意味著對當代新事物和西方敘事的全然否定和排斥。恰恰相反,既要關注當下,也需要尋找中國傳統敘事的當代意義;既要進一步熟悉和了解中國傳統敘事和批評,也需要了解和學習西方理論,并且在比較中發掘出各自的魅力與特征,在比較中增進交流和溝通。在這種探索和學習中,從新的角度或視野對經典進行再閱讀尤顯珍貴和重要。在這方面,專家型批評家或文學研究者應該承擔起更多的責任,使傳統與經典煥發出嶄新的生命力。當代文學評論,不僅僅是對評論方式的回歸和重新認識,也是對傳統經典的回歸和重新認識。傳統和經典,永遠是挖掘不盡的寶藏。  


                                                                                                                        (作者單位:江西師范大學,原載《光明日報》2016年8月15日13版)

    作者:盧普玲 來源:光明日報
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